Transcultural Health Care and

Cultural Competence


"We did not all come over on the same ship,

but we are all in the same boat."

Bernard Baruch

Prepared by Dr. Josepha Campinha-Bacote



Aaron, K. and Chesley, F. (2003).  Beyond Rhetoric: What We  Need to Know to Eliminate Disparities.  Ethnicity & Disease, 13(Suppl 3), S3-11.

Abrums, M. E., Resnick, J., & Irving, L. L. (2010).  Journey or Destination?  Evaluating student learning about race, class, and privilege in healthcare.  Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(3), 160-166.

Adler, N., Bush, N., and Pantell, M. (2012).  Rigor, Vigor, and the Study of Health Disparities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(2):17154-17159.


Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research. (2012). National healthcare disparities report 2011 (pp. 1-33). AHRQ Publication No. 12-0006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at


Alexander, K., Dovydaitis, T., Beacham, B., Bohinski, J., Brawner, B., Clements, C., Everett, J., Gomes, M., Harner, H., McDonald, C.,  Pinkston, E., and Sommers, M. (2011). Learning Health Equity Frameworks Within a Community of Scholars.  Journal of Nursing Education, 50(10), 569-574.


Alexander, G. (2008). Cultural Competence Models in Nursing.  Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America, 20(4), 415-421.

American College of Physicians. (2010).Racial and ethnic disparities in health care, updated 2010. Retrieved from

American Journal of Managed Care . (2004). Special Issue on Health Care Disparities. Available at :


American Journal of Public Health. (2003).  Volume 93, Issue, 2.  The entire February 1, 2003 issue features a selection of articles on racial/ethnic bias & health.


American Public Health Association. (2010). American Journal of Public Health, 100(5). Retrieved from


Anderson, L., Scrimshaw, S., Fullilove, M., Fielding, J., Normand, J., and Task Force on the Community Preventive Services. (2003).  Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(3S) 68-79.


Andrews, M., and Boyle, J. (2011).  Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care (6th edition).  Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

Andrews, M., & Friesen-Lynn, L. (2011). Finding Electronically Available Information on Cultural Competence in Health Care. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 1(4), 27-43.

Andrulis, D. P., Siddiqui, N. J., Purtle, J. P., & Duchon, L. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act of 2010: advancing health equity for racially and ethnically diverse populations. Retrieved from Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies website:

Aponte, J.  (2009). Addressing cultural heterogeneity among Hispanic subgroups by using Campinha-Bacote's model of cultural competency. Holistic Nursing Practice,(1), 3-12.

Armanda, A. and Hubbard, M. (2010).  Diversity in Healthcare: Time to Get Real! Frontiers of Heath Services Management, 26(3), 3-18.

Au, M., Taylor, E. and Gold, M. (2009).   Improving Access to Language Services in Health Care: A Look at National and State Efforts. Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (April, 2009). This AHRQ-funded brief describes emerging national efforts to ensure access to health care by patients with limited English proficiency, and profiles work in three leading states—California, Minnesota, and New York. The brief highlights challenges, successes, and implications for future policy and activities related to language services. The experiences of these states impart lessons to others looking to provide language services and ultimately improve health care for patients with limited English proficiency.

Bailey, D. (2010). Healthcare of vulnerable populations: Through the lens of Halldordottir’s theory. International Journal for Human Caring,14(3), 53-59.

Balsa, A., McGuire, Thomas, G. and Meredith, L. (2005). Testing for Statistical Discrimination in Health Care. Health Services Research, 40(1), 227-252.

Battle, D. (2002). Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.


Baum, F. (2007).  Cracking the Nut of Health Equity: Top Down and Bottom Up Pressure Action on the Social Determinants of Health.  International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 14(2), 90-95.


Beach MC, Cooper LA, Robinson KA, et al.  (2004).  Strategies For Improving Minority Healthcare Quality. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 90. AHRQ Publication Number 04-E008-1, January 2004. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.


Beach, M., Rosner, M., Cooper, L., Duggan, P., and Shatzer, J. (2007).  Can Patient-Centered Attitudes Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Care?  Academic Medicine, 82(20), 193-198. 

Benkert, R., Templin, T., Schim, S., Doorenbos, A. Z., & Bell, S. (2011). Testing a multigroup model of culturally competent behaviors among underrepresented

nurse practitioners. Research In Nursing & Health, 34(4), 327-341. doi:10.1002/nur.20441

Berry, E. (2002).  Not Separate But Still Unequal: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care.  Clearinghouse Review, 36, 201-212.

Betancourt, J., Green, A., and Carrillo, E. (2002). Cultural Competence in Health Care: Emerging Frameworks and Practical Approaches. Published by Commonwealth Fund. Publication #576.  Report can be found on the Fund’s website at or at

Betancourt, J., Green A., Carrillo J., and Park, E. (2005).  Cultural Competence and Health Care Disparities: Key Perspectives and Trends. Health Affairs; 24: 499-505.


Bliss, D., Doyle, O., and Pecukonis, E. (2008).  Reducing Barriers to Inter-Professional Training: Promoting Inter-Professional Cultural Competence. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 22(4), 417-428.


Bigby, J. (2003). Cross-cultural Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians.

Birch, M. (2008). Implementing Equity: The Commission on Social Determinant of Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 3.

Braveman, P., Egerter, S. & Williams, D.R. (2011). The Social Determinants of Health: Coming of Age. Annual Review of Public Health, 32, 381–398.

Braveman, P. (2006).  Health Disparities and Health Equity: Concepts and Measurement.  Annual Review of Public Health, 27.


Brennan, A., and Cotter, V. (2010).  Student Perceptions of Cultural Competence Content in the Curriculum.  Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 155-160.

Brondolo, E., Gallo, L., and Myers, H. (2009). Race, Racism, & Health: Disparities, Mechanisms, and Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 1-8.

Burroughs, V., Maxey, R., and Levy, R. (2002).  Racial and Ethnic Differences in Response to Medicines: Towards Individualized Treatment.  Journal of the National Medical Association, 94:1-26. Also available at

Butler M, Kane RL, Larson S, Jeffery MM, Grove M. Quality Improvement Measurement of Outcomes for People With Disabilities. Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science. Evidence Report/ Technology Assessment No. 208. (Prepared by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10064-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 12(13)-E013-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2012. displayProduct&productID=1243.

Byrd, W., and Clayton, L. (2002).  An American Health Dilemma. Volume 2- Race, Medicine and Health Care in the United States 1900-2000.  NY: Routledge.

Campinha-Bacote, A. and Campinha-Bacote, J. (2009).  Extending a Model of Cultural Competence in Healthcare Delivery to the Field of Health Law. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(2), 36-44.

Campinha-Bacote, J.  (2010).  The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services.   In  M. Douglas and D. Pacquiao  (Eds.) Core Curriculum in Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Volume 21 Supplement 1, pp119S-127-S.


Campinha-Bacote, J. (2011).  Delivering Patient-Centered Care in the Midst of A Cultural Conflict: The Role of Cultural Competence.   The Online Journal of Issue in Nursing, 16(2), Manuscript 5. 


Campinha-Bacote, J.  (2007).  Becoming Culturally Competent in Ethnic Psychopharmacology.  Journal of Psychosocial  Nursing and Mental Health Services, 45(9), 27-33.  


Campinha-Bacote,  J. (2002).  The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services:  A Model of Care.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13 (3), 181-184.


Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health Care.  Journal of Online Issues in Nursing, 8(1). Online at :


Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007).  The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery Healthcare Services: The Journey Continues  (5th Edition). Cincinnati, OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates.


Campinha-Bacote, J.  (2008).  Cultural Desire: 'Caught' or 'Taught?'  Contemporary Nurse, 28(2), Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing 2nd edition.  


Campinha-Bacote, J. (2007).  The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: The Journey continues  (5th Edition).  OH:  Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates Press.

Order form online at:


Campinha-Bacote, J. (2005).  A Biblically Based Model of  Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services.  OH:  Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates Press

Order form online at:


Canales, M. (2010). Othering:  Difference Understood" A 10-Year Analysis and Critique of the Nursing Literature. Advances in Nursing Science, 33(1), 15-34.


Capell, J., Veensrta, G. and Dean, E. (2007).  Cultural Competence in Healthcare: Critical Analysis of the Construct, its assessment and Implications.  Journal of Theory Construction &Testing, 11(1), 30. 

Carpenter-Song, E., Schwallie, M. and Longhofer, J. (2007). Cultural Competence Reexamined: Critique and Directions for the Future.  Psychiatric Services, 58:1362-1365.

Castro, A., & Ruiz, E. (2009). The effects of nurse practitioner cultural competence on Latina patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21, 278-286.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report— United States, 2013. MMWR. 2013; Supplement/Vol. 62/No.3.

Champlain Valley Areas Health Education Center.  (2007).  Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers Manual. (link to pdf file)

Chang, E., Simon, M. and Dong, X. (2010). Integrating cultural humility into health care professional education and training.  Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract., 17(2):269-78. .

Chong,  N. (2002).  The Latino Patient:  A Cultural Guide for Health Care Providers.  ME: Intercultural Press.


Clingerman, E. (2011). Social Justice: A Framework for culturally Competent Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 334-341.


Commission on the Public's Health System. (2010). Culturally competent care: some examples of what works! Retrieved from


Contemporary Nurse (2008).  The Vol. 28 Issue 1-2, April 2008 of  Contemporary Nurse edited by Akram Omeri and Marilyn McFarland is entitled, "Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing 2nd edition."  It is divided into four sections: transcultural nursing leadership and education; application of transcultural nursing theory and models of practice; transcultural nursing research; and global agenda in transcultural nursing. 


Contemporary Nurse (2003).  The Vol. 15 Issue 3, October 2003 of  Contemporary Nurse edited by John Daly and Debra Jackson, from the University of Western Sydney is entitled, "Advances in Contemporary Transcultural Nursing."  It is dedicated to Madeleine Leininger and discusses articles on globalization, culture and health, cardiovascular health, and mental health with a particular Australian focus.

Cooper, L. and Perquera, M. (2013). Maryland Cultural, Linguistic and Health Literacy Competency Strategies: A Policy Framework for 2013-2020.

Cutilli, C. (2006).  Do Your Patients Understand? Providing Culturally Congruent Patient Education. Orthopaedic Nursing, 25(3), 218-224.

Dankwa-Mullan, I., Rhee, K., Williams, K., Sanchez, I., Sy, F., Stinson, N., et al. (2010). The science of eliminating health disparities: Summary and analysis of the NIH Summit recommendations. American Journal of Public Health, 100`(S1`), 512 - 518.

D'Avanzo, C., and Geissler, E. (2003).  Pocket Guide to Cultural Assessment, 3rd edition. St. Louis: Mosby.

Dayer-Berenson, L. (2011). Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.

de Leon Siantz, M. (2008).  Leading Change in Diversity and Cultural Competence.  Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 167-171.


DeRosa, N. & Kochurka, K. (2006). Implement Culturally Competent Healthcare in Your Workplace. Nursing Management, 11,18-26.

Delphin, M. and Rowe, M.  (2008). Continuing Education in Cultural Competence for Community Mental Health Practitioners.  Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(2), 182-191.

Douglas, M., Rosenkoetter, M., Pacquiao, D., Callister, L., Hattar-Pollara, M., Lauderdale, J., Milstead, J., Nardi, D., and Purnell, L. (2014). Guidelines for Implementing Culturally Competent Nursing Care.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(2), 111-121.


Douglas, M., Pierce, J., Rosenkoetter, M., Pacquiao, D., Callister, L., Hattar-Pollara, M., Lauderdale, J., Milstead, J., Nardi, D., and Purnell, L. (2011). Standards of Practice for Culturally Competent Nursing Care: 2011 Update.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 317-333.


Douglas, M., and Pacquiao, D. (2010). Core Curriculum for Transcultural Nursing and Health Care.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 21(Supplement 1).

Drevdahl, D., Canales, M. and Dorcy, K. (2008).  Of Goldfish Tanks and Moonlight Tricks: Can Cultural Competency Ameliorate Health Disparities? Advances in Nursing Science, 31(1):13-27.

Dudas, K. I. (2013).  Cultural competence: An evolutionary concept analysis.  Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(5), 317-321.


Earley, P. and, Mosakowsk,i E. (2004).  Cultural Intelligence. Harvard Business Review, Oct: 139–46.

Eddey, G. and  Robey, K.  (2005).  Considering the Culture of Disability in Cultural Competence Education. Academic Medicine, 80 (7), 706-712.

Edwards, K. (2003).  Increasing Cultural Competence and Decreasing Disparities in Health.  Journal of Cultural Diversity, 10(4), 111-112.

Elisha, S., Nagelhout, J., Gupte, S., Koh, K., Maglalang, M., & Chong, N. (2008). A successful partnership to help reduce health disparities: The Institute for Culturally Competent Care and the Kaiser Permanente School of Anesthesia/California State University Fullerton. AANA, 70(8), 437 - 442.

Engebretson, J., Mahoney, J. and Carlson, E. (2008).  Cultural Competence in the Era of Evidence-Based Practice. J Prof Nurs, 24(3),172-178.


Epstein, L.  (2007).  Culturally Appropriate Health Care by Culturally Competent Health Professionals. International Workshop Report. The Israel National Institute for Health Policy and Health Services Research, Caesarea, Israel, October 2007.

Flaskerud, J. (2007). Cultural competence: What effect on reducing health disparities? Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28, 431 - 434.

Fletcher, F., Crabtree, A., McKennit, D., Landrie, M., and Magee, P. (2006).  A Systematic Review of the Academic Literature Related to the use and Development of Cultural Competence in Health Promotion and Community Service Professionals. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Cancer Board and University of Alberta.

Flores, G. (2012). Technical report—Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Health and Health Care of Children. Pediatrics, 125, e979–e1020.

Fortier, J., and Bishop, D.  (2004).  Setting the Agenda for Research and Cultural Competence in Health Care: Final Report.  Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health.

Gahlet, S., Sohmer, D., Sacks, T., Mininger, C., McClintock, M., and Olufunmilayo, O. (2008). Targeting Heath Disparities: A Model Lining Upstream Determinants to Downstream Interventions. Health Affairs, 27, 339-349.


Galanti, J. (2004).  Caring for Patients From Diverse Cultures.  Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.


Giger, J., Davidhizar, R., Purnell, L., Harden, J., Phillips, J. and Strickland. (2007).  American Academy of Nursing Expert Panel Report: Developing Cultural Competence to Eliminate Health Disparities in Ethnic Minorities and Other Vulnerable Populations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(2), 95-102.


Giger, J., & Davidhizar, R. (2008).  Transcultural Nursing (5th edition).  St. Louis:  Mosby Year Book.


Geiger,  H.J. (2001).  Racial Stereotyping and Medicine:  The Need for Cultural Competence.  Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164 (2), 1699-1701.


Graves, D.,  Like, R., Kelly, N., and Hohensee, A.  (2007).  Legislation as Intervention: A Survey of Cultural Competence Policy in Health Care.  Journal of Health Care Law & Policy, 10: 339-361.

Green, A., Carney, D., Pallin, D., Ngo, L., Raymond, K.,  Iezzoni, L. and  Banaji, M. (2007).  Implicit Bias Among Physicians and its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(9),1-8. Implicit_Bias_among_Ph ysicians.pdf

Gregg J, Saha S. (2006). Losing Culture on the Way to Competence: The Use and Misuse of Culture in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2006;81:542–547

Hall, J. and Fields, B. (2013).  Continuing the conversation in nursing on race and racism. Nurs Outlook,  61(3):164-73.

Hark, L., DeLisser, H. and Morrison, G. (2009). Achieving Cultural Competency: A Case-Based Approach to Training Health Professionals.

NJ: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Harper, M.  (2006).  Ethical Multiculturalism an Evolutionary Analysis. Advances in Nursing Science, 29:110-24.

Harris, G. (2010). Cultural competence:  Its promise for reducing healthcare disparities. JHHSA, (Summer), 3 - 52.

Hasnain-Wynia, R., Baker, D. W., Nerenz, D., Feinglass, J., & Beal, A. C. (2007). Disparities in Health Care Are Driven by Where Minority

Patients seek care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(12), 1233-1239.


Hasnain-Wynia, R., Pierce, D. and Pittman, M. (2004).  Who, When and How: The Current State of Race, Ethnicity and Primary Language Data Collection in Hospitals. NY: Commonwealth Fund. (link)


Hassouneh-Phillips, D. & Beckett, A. (2003).  An Education in Racism.  Journal of Nursing Education, 42(6), 258-265.


Hegyvary, T.  (2006).  Health Disparities Related To Race and Ethnicity.  Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Third Quarter: 205.


Helman, C. (2007).  Culture, Health and Illness (5th edition).  Oxford: UK Butterworth Heinemann.

Henderson, S., Kendall, E., & See, L. (2011). The effectiveness of culturally appropriate interventions to manage or prevent chronic disease in culturally and linguistically diverse communities: A systematic literature review. Health & Social Care in the Community, 19(3), 225-249. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2524.2010.00972.x

Higginbottom, G., Richter, M., Mogale, R., Ortiz, L., Young, S., and Mollel, O. (2011). Identification of Nursing Assessment Models/Tools Validated in Clinical Practice For Use With Diverse Ethno-Cultural Groups: An Integrative Review of the Literature. BMC Nursing 2011, 10:16

Honing Cultural and Linguistic Competence. This resource page features innovative programs and quality tools for improving cultural and linguistic competence as well as reducing health care disparities for vulnerable populations, including racial and ethnic minorities. Visit this resource at:

Hook, J., Davis, D., Owen, J., Worthington, E, Utsey, S. (2013).  Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(3), 353-366.

Horvat, L., Horey, D., Romios, P., & Kis-Rigo, J. (2014).  Cultural competence education for health professionals [Cochrane Review].  Retrieved from 10.1002/1465185.CD009405.pub2.

Ingram, R. (2012).  Using Campinha-Bacote's process of cultural competence model to examine the relationship between health literacy and cultural competence.  Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(3), 695-704.  doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05822.x

Institute of Medicine (2004).  In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health Care Workforce (2004).  Washington, DC: National Academic Press. Available online at:

James, C. (2013, April).  The Affordable Care Act and Its Potential to Reduce Health Disparities.  Paper presented at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Mark Twain House 351 Farmington Ave. Hartford, CT. Retrieved from

Jirwe, M., Gerrish, K., & Emami, A. (2006).  The Theoretical Framework of Cultural Competence. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health, 12, (3), 6-16.

The Joint Commission: Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission, 2010.

The Joint Commission. (2009). Requirements that support effective communication, cultural competence, and patient-centered care Hospital Accreditation Program (HAP).

Journal of Transcultural Nursing.  (2002).  Entire July issue (Volume 13, Issue 3) focuses on the extant models, theories & frameworks of transcultural nursing.


Kai, J. (2003). Ethnicity, Health and Primary Care. Oxford: UK University Press.

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2007). Key Facts: Race, Ethnicity and Medical Care, 2007 Update," CA: Author:

Koh, H., Gracia, N. and Alvarez, M. (2014). Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services — Advancing Health with CLAS. New England Journal of Medicine, 371:198-20.

Kumagai AK, Lypson ML (2009). Beyond Cultural Competence: Critical Consciousness, Social Justice, and Multicultural Education. Academic Medicine 84(6), 782-787.

Kehoe, K. & Melkus, G., Newlin, K. (2003).  Cultural Competence Within the Context of Care: An Integrative Review. Ethnicity & Disease, 13(3): 344-353.

LaVeist, T. (2005) . Minority Populations and Health: An Introduction to Health Disparities in the United States. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lie, Lee-Rey, E. & Braddock, C. (2011). Does Cultural Competency Training of Health Professionals Improve Patient Outcomes? A Systematic Review and Proposed Algorithm

for Future Research. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26 (3); 317-325.

Leininger, M. & McFarland, M. R. (2006).  Culture Care Diversity & Universality: A Worldwide Nursing Theory (2nd.) Massachusetts: Jones and Barlett

Leininger, M., & McFarland, M.  (2002).  Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research & Practice (3rd ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.

Leuning, D., Swiggum, P., Wiegert, H., & McCullough-Zander.  (2002).  Proposed Standards for Transcultural Nursing.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(1), 40-46.


Lipson, J., Dibble, S., & Minarik, P.  (2005).  Culture and Clinical Care.  CA: UCSF Nursing Press.

Lowe, J. & Archibald, C. (2009). Cultural diversity: The Intention of Nursing.  Nursing Forum, 44(1), 11-18.

Lum, D. (2005). Cultural Competence, Practice Stages, and Client Systems: A Case Study Approach. CA: Thomson/Brooks/Cole.

Lynam, J. (2008). Culture, Health, and Inequalities: New Paradigms, New Practice Imperatives. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(2), 138-148.

Maclean, JR., Johnson, M., Rogers, R.L., & Hoffman, W.  (2002).  Collecting Data on Race and Ethnicity in Managed Care: Challenges and Suggestions.  JCOM, 9(5), 259-262.


Marmot, M. and Bell, R. (2009). Action on Health Disparities in the US: Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 1169-1171.


Mead, H., Cartwright-Smith, L., Jones, K., Ramos, C., Woods, K.,  and Siegel, B.  (2008).  Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care: A Chartbook.  CA: The Commonwealth Fund.


Meghani, S., Brooks, J.,  Gipson-Jones, T., Waite, R., Whitfield-Harris, L. & Deatrick. J. (2009). Patient-Provider Race Concordance: Does it Matter in Improving Minority Patient's Health Outcomes? Ethnicity & Disease, 14(1), 107-130.


McEldowney, R. and Connor, M. (2011). Cultural Safety as an Ethic of Care: A Praxiological Process. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 342-349.


McGuire, T. and Miranda, J. (2008).  New Evidence Regarding Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Mental Health: Policy Implications. Health Affairs, 27(2), 393-403.

McNeil, J., Campinha-Bacote, J., Tapscott, E. & Vample, G. (2002).  BESAFE: National Minority AIDS Education and Training Center Cultural Competency Model.  Washington, DC: Howard University Medical School. Online at:

Miller, S. (2009). Cultural humility is the first step to becoming global care providers. JOGNN, 38(1), 92 - 93.

Morales, L., Puyol, J., and Hays, R.  (2003). Improving Patient Satisfaction Surveys to Assess Cultural Competence in Health Care. Oakland, CA: California Health Care Foundation.

Munoz, C. and Luckman, J.  (2005).  Transcultural Communication in Nursing.  NY: Thompson Delmar Learning.           


Murphy, S. (2006).  Mapping the Literature of Transcultural Nursing.  J Medical Library Association, 94(2 Suppl): E143–E151.


Narayanasamy, A. (2002).  The ACCESS Model:  A Transcultural Nursing Practice Framework.  British Journal of Nursing, 11, 643-650.


National Committee for Quality Assurance, & Lilly USA, LLC. (2011). Multicultural health care: a quality improvement guide. Retrieved from


National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (2005).  Eliminating Health Disparities: Strengthening Data on Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Language in the United States.  Author.


National Quality Forum (NQF). (2009). A Comprehensive Framework and Preferred Practices for Measuring and Reporting Cultural Competency. Forward by J. Corrigan.

Minority Health (OMH) of the United States (US) Department of Health and Human Services (2005). What is cultural competence?

Office of Minority Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The National CLAS  Standards.

Paez, K. A., Allen, J. K., Carson, K. A., & Cooper, L. A. (2008). Provider and Clinic Cultural Competence in a Primary Care Setting. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1204-1216.


Papadopoulous, I., & Lee, S.  (2002).  Developing Culturally Competent Researchers.  Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(3), 258-264.


Papps, E. (2005). Cultural Safety: Daring to be Different. In D. Wepa (Ed.), Cultural Safety in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 20-28). Auckland, NZ: Pearson Education.

Paul-Emile K. (2012). Patients’ racial preferences and the medical culture of accommodation. UCLA Law Review, 60(4):462-504.

Pearson, A., Srivastava, R., Craig, D., Tucker, D., Grinspun, D., Bajnok, I., et al. (2007). Systematic review on embracing cultural diversity for developing and sustaining a healthy work environment in healthcare. International Journal  of Evidence Based Healthcare, 2007(5), 54 - 91.

Policy Research Associates. (2005).  Cultural Competence in Health Care.  Delmar, NY: Author.


Public Health Reports. (2003).  The entire July issue, Vol. 118, Issue 4 is focused on cultural "Racial/Ethnic Disparities: Contemporary Issues and Approaches.


Purnell, L., & Paulanka, B.  (2008).  Transcultural Health Care:  A Culturally Competent Approach (3rd Edition).  PA: F.A. Davis.

Putsch, R. and SenGupta, I., Sampson, A. and Tervalon. (2003). "Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best Practices, Innovations, and Horizons,"

Renzahol, A. Romios, P., Crock, C. & Sonderlund. (2013). The Effectiveness of Cultural Competence Programs in Ethnic Minority Patient-Centered Health Care  A Systematic Review of the Literature.  International Journal For Quality in Health Care, 25(3), 261-269.


Review on Embracing Cultural Diversity for Developing and Sustaining a Healthy Work Environment in Healthcare.  International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 5 (1), 54–91.


Richardson, L. and Norris, M. (2010). Access to Health and Health Care: How Race and Ethnicity Matter. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 77, 166-177.


Rosenjack- Burchum, JL. (2002).  Cultural Competence: An Evolutionary Perspective.  Nursing Forum, 37(4), 5-15.


Rothman, J. (2008).  Cultural Competence in Process and Practice: Building Bridges. CA: University of California, Berkeley

Rust, G., Kondwani, K., Martinez, R., Danise, R., Wong, W., Fry-Johnson, Y., Woody, R., Daniels, E., Herbert-Carter, J., Aponte, L. and Strothers, H. (2006).  A Crash-Course in Cultural Competence.  Ethnicity & Disease, 16(2), 29-36.


Satcher, D. and Rubens J.P. (2006).  Multicultural Medicine and Health Disparities.  McGraw-Hill.


Sabin, J. A., Rivara, F. P., & Greenwald, A. G. (2008). Physician implicit attitudes and stereotypes about race and quality of medical care. Medical Care, 46(7), 678-685. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181653d58


Schim, S., Doorenbos, A., Benkert, R. and Miller, J. (2007).  Culturally Congruent Care: Putting the Puzzle Together.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(2), 103-110.


Schlotthauer, A. E., Badler, A., Cook, S. C., Perez, D. J., & Chin, M. H. (2008). Evaluating interventions to reduce health care disparities: An RWJF program. Health Affairs, 27(2), 568-573. Retrieved from


Seibert, P. S., Stridh-Igo, P., & Zimmerman, C. G. (2002). A Checklist to Facilitate Cultural Awareness and Sensitivity. J.Med.Ethics, 28 (3): 143-146.


Seright, T. (2007).  Perspectives of Registered Nurse Cultural Competencies in a Rural State - Part I.  Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 7(1), 47-56.


Seright, T. (2007).  Perspectives of Registered Nurse Cultural Competencies in a Rural State - Part I.  Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 7(1), 57-68.

Siantz, M. L. (2008). Leading Change in Diversity and Cultural Competence. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(3), 167-171.

Smedley, B.D., Stith, A.Y., &  Nelson, A.R. (2002).  Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care.  Board on Health Sciences Policy.  Institute of Medicine.  Washington, DC: National Academic Press.

Smith, L. S. (2013). Reaching for cultural competence. Nursing, 43(6), 30-38. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000429794.17073.87

Southwick, M. and Polaschek, N. (2014).  Reconstructing Marginality: A New Model of Cultural Diversity in Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(5), 249-255.

Spector, R. (2008).  Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (7th edition).  CT: Appleton-Lange.

Sperry, L. (2012). How cultural competence develops. Seminary Journal, 18(2), 48-52.

Stacks, J., Salgado, M. and Holmes, S. (2004). Cultural Competence and Social Justice: A Partnership for Change Transitions, 15(3), 3-7.

Stanley, M. (2013).  Teaching About Vulnerable Populations: Nursing Students’ Experience in a Homeless Center. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 585-588.

Strelitz, P. & Watson, K. (2008). Critical perspectives on cultural competence as a strategic opportunity for achieving high performance in healthcare organizations. Radiology Management. March/April. 42-47.

Stone J. (2005).  Culture and Disability: Providing Culturally Competent Services.  CA: Sage Publications.

Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L. & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggression in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62, 271–286 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271

Sue, S. (2008). Cultural Competency: From Philosophy to Research and Practice.  Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 237-245.


Suh, E. (2004).  The Model of Cultural Competence Through an Evolutionary Concept Analysis.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(2), 93-102.


Taylor, J. (2003). Confronting "Culture" in Medicine's "Culture of No Culture." Academic Medicine, 78(6), 555-559.


Taylor, J. (2003). The Story Catches You and You Fall Down: Tragedy, Ethnography, and "Cultural Competence."  Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 17: 159-181.

Trenerry, B., and Paradies, Y. (2012).  Organizational assessment:  An Overlooked Approach to Managing Diversity and Addressing Racism in the Workplace. Journal of Diversity Management, 7(1):11-26. OpenURL

Thanasombat, S., and Morris, M. (2006). Unequal Access to Health Care: A Test Language Services at Alameda County Hospital.  Berkley, CA: The Discrimination Research Center.

Theis, J. (2010). Cultural competence: An ongoing quest. Health Progress, 91(4), 10 - 14.

Thomson, N. (2005). Cultural Respect and Related Concepts: A Brief Summary of the Literature. Australian Indigenous Health Bulletin, 5(4), 1-11.


Tseng, W, Matthews, D. and  Elwyn, T. (2008).  Cultural Competence in Forensic Mental Health. NY: Brunner-Routledge.


UK Commission for Racial Equality.  (2002).  Towards Racial Equality: An Evaluation of the Public Duty to Promote Race Equality and Good Race Relations in England and Wales. Schneider-Ross: Author.


U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. National Healthcare Disparities Report (AHRQ Publication No. 10-0004). Retrieved from

Waite, R., & Calamaro, C. J. (2010). Cultural competence: A systemic challenge to nursing education, knowledge exchange, and the knowledge development process. Perspectives In Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 74-80. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2009.00240.x

Wynia, M. K., & Matiasek, J. (2006).  Promising Practices in Patient-centered Communication With Vulnerable Populations: Examples From Eight Hospitals. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund.

Williamson, M., & Harrison, L. (2010). Providing culturally appropriate care: A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 761 -n769.

Wilson-Stronks, A., Le, K., Cordero, C., Kopp, A.,  and Galvan, R. (2008).  One Size Does Not Fit All: The Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission.

Wilson-Stronks, A.  and Galvan, R. (2007).  Hospitals, Language, and Culture: A Snapshot of the Nation. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission.

White-Means, S., Dong, Z., Hufstader, M. and Brown, L. (2009). Cultural Competency, Race and Skin Tone Bias Among Pharmacy, Nursing, and Medical Students: Implications for Addressing Health Disparities. Medical Care Research and Review, 66(4), 436-4545.


Wong, P. T.  (2006).  Handbook of Multicultural Perspectives on Stress and Coping. NY: Springer.


Xu, Y., Shelton, D., Polifroni, E. and Anderson, E. (2006).  Advances in Conceptualization of Cultural Competence in Nursing: An Initial Assessment. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 18(5), 386-393.

Yeager, K. A., & Bauer-Wu, S. (2013).  Cultural humility: Essential foundation for clinical researchers.  Applied Nursing Research, 26(4), 251-6.  doi:10.1016/j.apnr.2013.06.008

Yehieli, M. (2005).  Health Matters: A Pocket Guide to Working With Diverse Cultures and Underserved. Populations. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Yuen, F. (2003).  International Perspectives on Disability Services: The Same But Different. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Social Work Practice Press

Zander, P. (2007). Cultural Competency: Analyzing the Construct. Journal of Nursing Theory Construction & Testing. 22(2), 5-54.



National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCA)

NHPCA's Council on Hospice Care in Diverse Communities


Quality Interactions Newsletter

The Quality Interactions aims to provide updates on the field of cultural competence.


Think Cultural Health


AIDS Education and Training Center-National Multicultural Institute


Institute for Medical Quality (IMQ) - Online Cultural Competency Resources


National Center For Cultural Competence (NCCC)


Center for Healthy Families and Culture Diversity  


Cultural Competence Project


HRET Health Disparities Tool Kit


National Resource Center on Advancing Emergency Preparedness for Culturally Diverse Communities


Rural Assistance Center - Health Literacy


Evidenced Based Culturally Competent Care


Eastern State University's Office of Cultural Affairs


Ethnicity Online


Cultural Competence




ADDM Resource Guide

The Provider's Guide to Quality and Culture


Culturally & Linguistically Appropriate Services National Standards




Cultural Competency Program (CCP)


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)


Office of Minority Health Resource Center

National Quality Forum (A Comprehensive Framework and Preferred Practices for Measuring and Reporting Cultural Competency)

CAHPS Cultural Competence Item Set


Cultural Competence Resources


The National Council  of La Raza’s (NCLR) Institute for Hispanic Health


Anti-Racism Resources




Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) Multicultural Patient Care


Awesome Library - Multicultural Site                                        


MEDLINEplus Health Information




Factline: Tracking Health in Underserved Communities


Center for International Rehabilitation

Research Information & Exchange (CIRRIE)


Kaiser Family Foundation - Minority Health


Cross Cultural Health Care Program (CCHCP)


Commonwealth Fund (Underserved populations & patient-centered care)


Enriching Medicine Through Diversity


Resources for Cross-Cultural Health Care


Cultural Clues


The Center for Cross-Cultural Health


National Resource Center


Multilingual Glossary of Medical Terms


National Institutes of Health's Bioethics Resources on the Web: Culture, Diversity & Health Disparities in Medicine


Transcultural Nursing Society (TCNS) Informational Links


Center For Cross-Cultural Research


The Access Project


CHISPA Project Information


The Hmong Health Information Project (Hmong HIP)


International Cancer Council (ICC)


Cultural Competency and Health Care


Walking the Walk: Links to Diversity


Program For Multicultural Health Cultural Competency Division


The 24 Languages Project:

Consumer Health Brochures in Multiple Languages


National Standards of Practice For Interpreters in Health Care


National Council on Interpreting in Health Care


The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation


Transcultural Nursing Society




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  Last Updated: April, 2015