Ethics and Culture

"If you judge people, you have no time to love them"
Mother Teresa

Prepared by Dr. Josepha Campinha-Bacote


Baker, R. (1998).  A Theory of International Bioethics: Multiculturalism, Post-modernism, and the Bankruptcy of Fundamentalism.  Kennedy Institute Ethics Journal, 8(3), 201-231.                                                                                                                                                                         

Bathum, ME. (2007). Global Health Research to Promote Social Justice: A Critical Perspective. Advances in Nursing Science, 30(4), 303-314.

Boss, J. (2001). Healthcare Ethics In A Diverse Society.   CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.


Campinha-Bacote. J.  (2005).   A Biblically-Based Model of Cultural Competence.  Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health, 11(2), 16-22.


Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003).  Cultural Desire: The Spiritual Key to Cultural Competence.  Journal of Christian Nursing,  20(3), 20-22.  


Carrese, J., and Perkins, H. (2003.)   Ethics Consultation in a Culturally Diverse Society. Public Aff Q.,17:97-120.

Coward, H.,  & Ratanakul, P. (2001). A Cross-Cultural Dialogue on Health Care Ethics. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.


Crigger, N., & Holcomb, L. (2007). Practical Strategies for Providing Culturally Sensitive Ethical Care in Developing Nations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 70-76.

Crow, K., Matheson, L., & Steed, A. (2000). Informed Consent and Truth-telling: Cultural Directions for Healthcare Providers. Journal of Nursing Administration, 30(3), 148-152.

Culhane-Pera, K., Vawter, D., Xiong, P., Babbitt and Solberg, M. (2003).  Healing by Heart : Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers.  Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.


Davis, A. (2001).  Ethics in International Nursing: Issues And Questions. In, N.L. Chaska (ED.) The Nursing Profession: Tomorrow and Beyond, (pp. 65-75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Davis, A. J. (1999). Global Influence of American Nursing: Some Ethical Issues. Nursing Ethics: An International Journal for Health Care Professionals, 6(2), 118-125.

Dinc, L., & Gorgulu, R.S. (2002). Teaching Ethics in Nursing. Nursing Ethics: an International Journal for Health Care Professionals, 9(3), 259-268.

Donnelly, P. L. (2000). Ethics and Cross-Cultural Nursing.  Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(2), 119-126.


Ethics in Medicine. The University of Washington School of Medicine maintains a program, Ethics in Medicine.  A feature is Cross-Cultural Issues and Diverse Beliefs


Fadiman, A. (1997).  The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down.  NY:  Farrar, Straus and Giroux. The following link provides a teaching guide for facilitating discussion on the topic of cultural conflicts:


Fowers, B. and Davidov, B. (2006). The Virtue of Multiculturalism: Personal Transformation, Character, and Openness to the Other.  American Psychology, 61(6):581-94.


Gastmans, C. (2002). A Fundamental Ethical Approach to Nursing: Some Proposals for Ethics Education. Nursing Ethics: an International Journal for Health Care Professionals, 9(5), 494-507.

Hickman, S. & Wocial, L. (2013). Team-Based Learning and Ethics Education in Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(12), 696-700.

Howard, Cheryl et al. (2010). The Ethical Dimensions of Cultural Competence in Border Health Care Settings. Family and Community Health,   23(4). 

Kagawa-Singer,  M., & Blackhall,  L.J. (2001).  Negotiating Cross-Cultural Issues at the End of Life.  JAMA,  286:2993-3001.


Leever, M. G. (2011). Cultural Competence: Reflections on Patient Autonomy and Patient Good. Nursing Ethics, 18(4), 560-570.


Levi, A. (2009). The Ethics of Nursing Student International Clinical Experiences. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological & Neonatal Nursing, 38(1), 94-99,


Ludwick, R. & Silva Cipriano, M. (2000).  Nursing Around the World: Cultural Values and Ethical Conflicts. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Online at:

Malone, R., Yerger, V., McGruder, C., and Froelicher, E. (2006). It’s Like Tuskegee in Reverse: A Case Study of Ethical Tensions in Institutional Review  Board Review of Community-Based Participatory Research. Health Policy and Ethics, 96(11), 1914-1919.

Mattson, M. (2000). Ethical Decision Making: The Person in the Process. Social Work, 45:321-329.

Meer, D., & VandeCreek, L. (2002). Cultural considerations in release of information. Ethics & Behavior, 12(2), 143-156.

McCunn, M., Mauritz, W., Dutton, R. P., Alexander, C., Handley, C., & Scalea, T. M. (2003). Impact of culture and policy on organ donation: A comparison between two urban trauma centers in developed nations. Journal of Trauma, 54(5), 995-999.

McEldowney, R. and Connor, M. (2011). Cultural Safety as an Ethic of Care: A Praxiological Process. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 22(4), 342-349.

McGrath, P., & Phillips, E. (2008). Western Notions of Informed Consent and Indigenous Cultures: Australian Findings at the Interface. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 5(1), 21-31.

McLean, M (Retrieved July 10, 2003).  Minority Patients Need Cultural Brokers. Ethics Connection. Markkua Center for Applied Ethics.

McNiel, J., Campinha-Bacote, J. & Tapscott, E. & Vample, G. (2002).  “Ethics.”  In J. McNiel, J. Campinha-Bacote, E. Tapscott, & G. Vample (Eds), BE SAFE.  Washington, DC: Howard University Medical School.  Online at: 

Murray R. (1992).  Minority Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics. In: Pellegrino E, Mazzarella P, Corsi P, eds. Transcultural Dimensions in Medical Ethics. Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group; 1992:39-40.

Musham, C., & Trettin, L. (2002). Bringing Health Services to the Poor Through Social Marketing: Ethical Issues. Journal of Health Care for the Poor & Underserved, 13(3), 280-287.

Paasche-Orlow, M  (2004).  The Ethics of Cultural Competence.  Academic Medicine,79(4):347-50.

Perkins, H. (2006). Ethics Expertise and Cultural Competence.  Virtual Mentor, 8(2), 79-83.

Ray, M. (1994) .Transcultural Nursing Ethics: A Framework and Model for Transcultural Ethical Analysis.  Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12(3), 251-264.

Richardson, L.D. (1999).  Patient's Rights and Professional Responsibilities: The Moral Case for Cultural Competence.  Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine,  66(4), 267-270.

Sargent, C., & Smith-Morris, C. (2006). Questioning Our Principles: Anthropological Contributions to Ethical Dilemmas in Clinical Practice. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 15(2), 123-134.

Taft, S. (2002). An Inclusive Look at the Domain of Ethics and Its Application to Administrative Behavior.  Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Available online at:

Veatch, R. (2000).  Cross Cultural Perspectives in Medical Ethics, Second Edition.  Jones and Bartlett Publishing Company.

Yarbrough, S., and Klotz, L. (2007). Incorporating Cultural Issues in Education for Ethical Practice. Nursing Ethics, 14(4), 492-502.



La Roche College Institute for Cross-Cultural Ethics (ICCE).

Ethics in Medicine.   University of Washington School of Medicine

International Council of Nursing Code of Ethics


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  Last Updated:  January, 2014